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Then click Customize Ribbon. You can select the tabs that you wish to display on the workspace. You can also create a new tab or group by clicking New Tab or New Group to accommodate the commands that you use frequently. Visio has a few options for changing how you view the drawing. The View tab lists all the possible view options that you can use on the canvas. We will look at some of the commands that are useful in changing view modes. Basically, slide snippets allow you to directly export a Visio diagram as a PowerPoint slide.
To take a slide snippet, click the Slide Snippets Pane in the View tab to open it. Then, select an area of the drawing that you want to export to a PowerPoint slide and click the Add button in the Slide Snippets Pane. Add a title in the Enter title here The Presentation Mode shows a full screen view of the drawing without any distractions.
This mode can also be toggled by pressing F5 on the keyboard. You can toggle between showing the vertical and horizontal rulers, the grid, and the guides by toggling the corresponding checkboxes in the Show area of the View tab. The scaling of the rulers and grid can also be adjusted. The grid allows to easily snap objects so that they are placed correctly on the canvas. The Zoom section comprises of commands that allow you to change the zoom levels of the canvas. You can also fit the contents to window or adjust the contents to fill the page width.
The Window section lists commands that allow to arrange multiple windows on your screen. You can directly open a new window or arrange windows side by side. You can also cascade windows for easy switching between them. SmartShapes provide contextual shapes which relate to the selected shape. SmartShapes are connected to the original shape and the connector also moves whenever the SmartShape is moved.
Start with a blank document in this case a flowchart diagram. You will notice that the Shapes pane has different shapes that are applicable to flowcharts. Click and drag a shape onto the empty canvas. You can resize or rotate the shape as desired. You can even align the shape with the help of the alignment guides.
When you drag a shape onto the canvas, you will notice that there are four arrows along the shape. Hovering over any of these arrows will show possible shapes that can be created and linked to this shape.
Click the desired shape to create the shape. You will also notice that the shape is automatically connected to the initial shape. If you were to drag the shape manually, you will need to connect it manually as well. The connections between the shapes are dynamic and they will move in relation to the placement of the shape.
The SmartShape arrow lists the first four shapes for the diagram that are seen in the Shapes pane. You might want to customize which shapes appear in the four SmartShape options depending on your workflow. To set the shapes that you prefer as SmartShapes, first select the desired shape in the Shapes pane and drag it to one of the first four shapes within the pane.
In this example, let us assume that the Database shape needs to be in the first four. Click and drag the Database shape into one of the first four positions.
SmartShapes allows to automatically connect shapes. If you want to connect shapes that are not directly related, you can manually connect them. To manually connect shapes, click the Connector tool in the Tools section of the Home tab.
The mouse pointer now changes into a connector. Draw a connecting line from the originating shape to the destination. You will notice a dotted line representing the connector. You can either glue this connector to the connection point or glue it to the destination shape. Gluing it to the shape will enable you to move the shape to a different location on the canvas along with the connector.
Click the Pointer Tool in the Tools section of the Home tab to return the mouse pointer back to normal. Newer versions of Visio have built-in intelligence to help you place shapes between other shapes.
Visio automatically adds the required spacing and connectors to ensure that the new shape is inserted in the correct position. To insert a shape between two shapes, drag the new shape in between the desired shapes, till you see green squares on the connectors and release the mouse. The new shape will be inserted with equal spacing and appropriate connections.
Often, inserting and deleting shapes can disturb the alignment of the diagram. It can also make the elements of the diagram space out unevenly. To get around this, Visio provides tools that automatically align and space the shapes in your diagram so that it looks perfect. To automatically align and space shapes in a diagram, go to the Position dropdown menu in the Arrange section of the Home tab.
You can also hover the mouse on these commands to preview how the diagram would look after alignment. Visio provides options for automatically changing the layout of the diagram with the ReLayout Page command. The Re-Layout Page command provides commonly used layouts. You can also customize some of the aspects of the layout as needed. Open the diagram and navigate to the Design tab on the Ribbon. Click the Re-Layout Page dropdown menu and select a layout as needed.
You will see that the diagram now changes to the selected layout. You can also preview the look before clicking by hovering the mouse over the layout style. This opens a dialog box in which you can configure the layout properties. You can change the spacing between the shapes by manually changing the values in the Spacing field.
You can also change the appearance of the connectors to curved by selecting Curved in the Appearance dropdown menu. Remember to select the Apply routing style to connectors checkbox to be able to change the appearance of the connectors. Visio allows inserting text either within the shapes or in the document. You also get to do text formatting just like any other text editor. It is easy to insert text within a shape. Just double-click within a shape to type the text. Notice that Visio automatically zooms into the shape to enable typing and zooms out when you click outside the shape.
To insert a text in a document such as a heading for the chart, click the Text Box dropdown menu in the Insert tab on the Ribbon and select either horizontal or vertical text box. Backgrounds are inserted using pages called background pages. Background pages can contain graphics or text such as copyright info and other information. Background pages are always separate but appear overlaid on the main page.
You can change the background of a document by choosing from preset backgrounds or using your own background template. To insert a background, click the Background dropdown menu from the Design tab on the Ribbon and choose a background preset. This creates a new page in addition to the diagram page. You can right-click the newly created background page to rename it. The new background will be automatically applied to all newly created pages in the document.
Apart from the shapes that are part of the diagram, you can add your own images to the document. Images can come from any online or offline source. If you add an image to the background page, the image will appear on all the pages in the document. To insert your images or graphics, go to the Insert tab on the Ribbon and select from any of the commands in the Illustrations section.
It can be a picture on your local drive, an online source, a chart or even a CAD drawing. You can also replicate the picture on all the pages by inserting the picture in a background page. To do this, select the background page and insert the picture as described above. Drag and resize the picture as needed. Now, navigate to the page containing the diagram and you will find that the picture appears on that page and any other subsequent pages that are added.
Sometimes, you might want to combine two or more elements of the diagram together. You can use containers to group shapes that are dependent on each other. Callouts help in inserting more text outside the shape. Callouts are always connected to the shape and move along with it. To insert a container, go to the Insert tab on the Ribbon and click the Container dropdown menu in the Diagram Parts section.
You will see that there are many designs to choose from for the container. Once you select a design, you can drag the container around the grouped shapes. Release the mouse to lock the container. The container also contains an area for typing text. Double-click the heading area to type the text. Select the shape for which you want to use the callout. To insert a callout, go to the Insert tab on the Ribbon and click the Callout dropdown menu in the Diagram Parts section. You will see that there are many designs to choose from for the callout.
Select a design appropriate for the callout. The callout will appear connected to the selected shape. In this example, we have added a callout for the Back to Research process called Extensive Research. The callout is linked to the shape and can be moved about anywhere in the drawing, however it will always stay connected to the shape.
Visio will zoom in when you click the callout to enable typing and will zoom out when clicked outside the callout. This text now needs to be converted into a hyperlink. To do so, select the text in the text box and in the Insert tab again. Click Link to open the Hyperlinks dialog box. You can specify the links to websites or a local file on your computer. Click OK to convert the selected text into a hyperlink. You can directly hyperlink a text or a shape to a file. Double-clicking the text or shape opens the hyperlinked file.
The procedure is similar to hyperlinking a website. Select the shape or text that you want to create a hyperlink for and click the Link button in the Insert tab of the Ribbon. In the Hyperlinks dialog box, click Browse… adjacent to the Address field and click Local File… to browse to the location of the file. Make sure that the Use relative path for hyperlink box is selected to ensure that the file path is updated automatically when you change the file location.
Visio also makes it possible to hyperlink pages in a multi-page document so that clicking the link will directly take you to the linked page. To hyperlink pages, select a text or shape to be linked to and click Links in the Insert tab in the Ribbon.
In the Hyperlinks dialog box, make sure to click Browse… adjacent to the Sub-address field. Select the destination page in the Page field. You can also set a default zoom level in the Zoom dropdown menu so that navigating to the linked page opens it at the desired zoom.
You need not be content with the default theme. Visio allows to customize the theme and overall look of the document. To apply a theme, go to the Design tab and choose from any of the many theme options available. Once you click any of the available themes, the theme will be applied to the document. You can further personalize it by selecting from one of the many options in the Variants section. The Variants section allows you to customize theme colors as needed. Clicking the dropdown menu in the Variants section allows to customize the theme colors, effects, and connectors.
It opens the New Theme Colors dialog box, which allows to customize each of the accents in the theme. If you are familiar with Microsoft Word, you should be right at home in Visio with respect to formatting text. You can format titles and text within shapes. You can also use the Format Painter command to copy formatting and paste it into another shape or text box.
To format the text, select the text box containing the text or highlight the text itself. Then, choose from the options available in the Font and Paragraph sections of the Home tab. You can change the font, size, color, and paragraph alignment. If you want to change the font styles in a shape, just double-click the shape to select the text within the shape and change the font styles as desired.
You can also format the shapes to give them a more professional or casual look as desired. To format shapes, select the shape in the diagram and format using the options available in the Shape Styles section. You can select predefined shape styles or you can customize the shape using the Fill dropdown menu. To adjust the color of the shape border, select a color from the Line dropdown menu.
The Effects menu allows to add special effects to your shape such as drop shadows or 3D rotations. Visio makes it easy to format the shape outlines and the connectors.
You might be looking to format a shape outline to make it stand out from the rest of the shapes or to highlight something important. To format a shape outline, click the shape or hold down the Ctrl key on the keyboard and select multiple shapes. This will open a Format Shape flyout. In the Line section, select the options you need to customize the shape outline. You can change the color of the shape outline, increase the width to add more weight, change the rounding, and a whole lot more.
You can also create gradients for the line to suit the diagram. Like shape outlines, connectors can also be formatted as needed. To format a connector, select the connector in the diagram and bring up the Format Shape pane by going to the Line dropdown menu and clicking Line Options In the Line section of the Format Shapes pane, select the Dash type of your choice to change the connector pattern.
You can also change the color of the connector and adjust the transparency levels as needed. Visio comes with visual aids to help align and structure the elements in the diagram so that it appears great both on-screen and in print. The main visual aids available include rulers, grids, and guides. Rulers help in providing perspective to the elements in the diagram.
They help orient the shapes to attain a consistent and clean look. Rulers can be switched off or on with a simple checkbox in the Show section of the View tab. When you move a shape, you will notice that there are 3 dotted lines shown in the following example in red rectangles on both the vertical and horizontal rulers.
These 3 dotted lines denote the left, middle, and right parts of the diagram. When you drag the shape vertically or horizontally, these 3 dotted lines help position the shape exactly at the place you need. Just like rulers, guides help in orienting different shapes of the diagram properly. You can create any number of guides from both the vertical and horizontal rulers. To create a guide, simply drag a line from either the vertical or horizontal rulers. Guides are represented by lines, which appear thick when selected.
You can delete a guide by simply selecting the guide and pressing the Delete key on the keyboard. Uncheck the Guides checkbox in the View tab to remove all the guides from view. Dragging a shape onto a guide will enable you to snap the shape to the guide. When a shape is snapped to a guide, it moves along with the guide. Grids not only help to align shapes within the drawing but can also be an important measurement tool. Grids comprise of square boxes of defined area, which can be adjusted.
Therefore, grids help you have an estimate of the likely area occupied by the shape, which allows you to size the shapes as needed. You can also customize the size of each grid by adjusting the spacing between the grids. To do so, click the small downward facing arrow to the bottom-right of the Show section in the View tab. Apart from commonly used visual aids such as the ruler, guides, and grids, Visio also comes with few other visual aids to help you better organize your diagram.
One of the advantages of using SmartShapes is the ability to quickly and easily connect a shape to the top four favorite shapes. AutoConnect helps to quickly select a shape from the top four and instantly establish a connection to the new shape. Sometimes, you might not need this feature. In such cases, you can disable the AutoConnect feature by simply unchecking the AutoConnect checkbox from the Visual Aids section of the View tab.
When the AutoConnect checkbox is unchecked, the SmartShapes and connecting arrows do not appear when a shape is selected. Dynamic grid provides a relative alignment cue when you insert a new shape. When the Dynamic Grid option is turned on, you will see guides and indicators relative to the shape. Dynamic Grid can be used in conjunction with the actual Grid. The actual Grid is more of an absolute measurement and should be considered when precise measurements are of importance in deciding the placement of the shapes.
The Dynamic Grid is more of a relative measurement. In the above example, we see that turning on the Dynamic Grid allows us to see the relative distance of the new shape with respect to pre-existing shapes. Connection Points help in connecting shapes to specific points along the surface of a shape. For example, a shape can have four Connection Points along its perimeter to which connectors can attach to.
Turning on Connection Points help to connect shapes precisely at defined connection points. Connection Points can be identified by green squares that appear on all sides of the shape. If you want to connect to the shape directly rather than to a connection point on the shape, uncheck the Connection Points checkbox in the View tab of the ribbon.
Task Panes provide additional functionality to the user interface. You can use task panes to customize or add parameters to an object.
The Shapes pane which is there by default, is an example of a Task Pane. Task Panes can be floating or docked and can be resized as needed. Apart from the Shapes task pane, there are quite a few other panes, which can be accessed from the Task Panes dropdown menu in the View tab of the Ribbon.
The Shape Data pane allows entry of additional shape metadata. This metadata is contextual and depends on the shape being selected. This is especially useful while working with complex diagrams. This allows to set precise measurements of a shape. You can also change the angle of orientation of the shape and the pin position from which the measurements are to be considered.
The Navigation pane is available only in the Office version of Visio. It basically lists all the elements of the diagram and makes it easy to navigate to each of them. This is especially useful if the diagram has varied shapes and you want to navigate to a specific shape type. Selecting the name of the shape in the Navigation pane selects it in the canvas.
It is easy to work with multiple windows or multiple versions of a document in Visio. You can switch between windows easily or arrange them side by side for a comparative look.
The options for window rearrangement can be found in the Window section of the View tab. New Window basically allows to create a new copy of the existing window. The new copy will not show the stencils directly, however, they can be selected by clicking the More Shapes arrow in the Shapes pane.
The new window can be identified by the presence of a number in the title bar of the window. In the following example, the original file name was BlkDiagm. Using the New Window command creates a new window with BlkDiagm: 2 in the title bar. This function allows you to arrange all windows side by side. This feature is useful for comparing two windows, however, if you have a high-resolution display, you might be able to accommodate more windows beside each other.
The Shapes pane and other panes can be minimized to allow more screen real estate. This function allows cascading of windows to give an overall view of the open windows.
The active window is in the foreground, while inactive windows are in the background with title bars visible. Cascade view is useful to know which documents are open at a glance. The right side of the Print menu shows a preview of the output. You can change the orientation of the page, page size, and select only the pages that you need to print.
Depending on your printer, you can also print in color or in greyscale. Remember that printing in black and white might not produce a good output. Visio includes several ways to create a PDF of the drawing, which is extremely useful for sharing with others. You can save the drawing as a Visio drawing. This opens the Save As dialog box. You might want to use this if you need to have fine grain control over the PDF document such as PDF version or compatibility properties.
You can also directly email the diagram to a recipient. This creates a new email in your default email client with the PDF file readily attached. Just enter the email address of the recipient to send the attachment. Exporting image formats is useful while sharing the drawing easily with others or to put it up on a web page.
To export a drawing, go to the File menu, click Save As and in the Save As type field, choose from the list of supported formats. You can choose from any of the abovementioned graphics formats. Once you choose a graphics format to export to, you will get some options to choose from depending on the capabilities of the graphic format.
The options in the Operation and Color format fields are format specific. You can leave them mostly as default. Set the Background color as white if you have a background for the drawing. Set the Quality as needed. You can also rotate the drawing or flip it horizontally or vertically. The resolution and size of the output diagram can be matched with the screen, printer, or source.
You can also input a custom resolution or size. Click OK. You can also export drawings to web pages which can be hosted on a web site. Visio allows customizing what goes into the web page. You can select which of the components of the diagram that you want to publish and the number of pages to publish.
You can also provide a page title. The HTML file is created in the chosen location along with a folder containing the supporting files. Both the HTML file and the folder are linked together. Adding SmartShapes automatically creates layers. Layers are basically overlays, which can be individually customized and turned on or off. Each shape and connector in the diagram forms a layer whose properties can be customized.
To know the list of layers in the diagram, in the Editing section of the Home tab, click the Layers dropdown menu and click Layer Properties This opens the Layer Properties dialog box, which you can use to customize the different layers in the diagram. The Layer Properties dialog box lists the different layers in the document and allows changing the individual properties of the layers.
Layers are automatically assigned to shapes. However, Visio allows to assign layers to shapes as needed. You can also create your own layers. Let us start by creating a new layer and then assign some shapes to the new layer. Go to the Layer Properties… dialog box in the Layers dropdown menu from the Editing section of the Home tab and click New… Type a name for the new layer. The new layer will be created in the Layer Properties dialog box and will initially have zero shapes, as they are yet to be assigned.
Shapes can be assigned to any layer. To assign a shape to a layer, click the shape or connector in the diagram and then, click Assign to Layer in the Layers dropdown menu from the Editing section of the Home tab. It opens the Layer dialog box from which a shape can be assigned to either an existing or a newly created layer.
Note that the New Layer that was created earlier is now in the list. A shape can be assigned to more than one layer as well. To assign a shape to all the layers in the document, click All and then click OK. The Layer Properties dialog box allows to change the properties of individual layers. The Name field lists the type of layer, while the field lists the number of shapes in that type.
In the following example, we see that there are nine equipment shapes in this diagram. There is a row of checkboxes for each layer type that can be selected or deselected. Unchecking the Visible checkbox makes the shape invisible in the drawing. If the Print checkbox is checked, the shape will be printed along with the others. Unchecking the Print checkbox will not print the shapes in the layer.
Similarly, layers can be made active or locked. Shapes in an active layer can be manipulated without affecting the other shapes or layers. When you lock a shape, Visio prevents any changes from happening to the shape. You cannot drag the shape or change its contents. Snap and Glue will be checked, if the shapes are allowed to snap to a grid.
You can also represent a layer by a color for easy recognition. When you represent a layer by its color, the shapes belonging to that layer will also be colored in the diagram.
This is useful if you want to differentiate a set of shapes from another. Themes and Styles are useful to give the diagram a design makeover and make it stand out. Visio provides a standard set of themes and styles, which are customizable. Themes apply to the entire diagram. Themes comprise of a set of colors and effects that generally blend well with each other. They are a great way to quickly give the diagram a polished look. Themes also affect other parts of the document such as titles, headings, text, etc.
To apply a theme, go to the Design tab and select a theme from the Themes section. The dropdown arrow provides more choices categorized by theme type. When you click a theme, all the aspects of the diagram and other parts of the document reflect the theme settings. A theme can have many variants, which can be selected from the Variants section of the Design tab. Styles are different from themes such that, they are applicable to a selected shape or a group of shapes.
Styles help in customizing the aspects of a particular style. To change a style of a shape, select the shape and from the Home tab, then select a style from the Shape Styles section. Style can be applied to both shape elements in the diagram as well as to individual text boxes. You can select multiple shapes to apply the style to all of them together. When you change a theme after applying a style to a shape, the shape will take up the characteristics of the theme but will still remain distinct from other shapes.
Of course, you can continue to customize the style even after applying a theme. Themes are useful to customize the appearance of the document. Visio goes a step further and allows to customize the themes themselves.
Themes come with variants that can be further customized as needed. Theme variants can be accessed from the Variants section in the Design tab. You can use the stock variants or click the dropdown menu to customize many other aspects. Sometimes, it becomes necessary to prevent themes from affecting one shape or a group of shapes, especially if they have important information that has to be presented in a particular way. To enable protection for a shape, click a shape or a group of shapes. This opens the Protection dialog box that allows to select which components of the shape to protect from being overridden.
We will focus on protecting the theming of the shape for now. So, select the checkboxes for Text, Format, From theme colors, From theme effects, From theme fonts and finally, From theme index.
If you now select any theme from the Design tab, you will notice that the shape that is protected is unaffected by the theme change. To reverse the changes, simply go to the Protection dialog box again, click None and finally click OK. Visio comes with a good selection of themes and variants to suit almost any need. However, sometimes you might have the need to create a specific color scheme that reflects your organization.
To do this, select a theme from the Design tab and choose a variant from the Variants section that closely matches to what you intend to create.
In the New Theme Colors dialog box, give a name for the theme in the Name field. There are 5 accent colors to customize. Depending on the colors that you want to customize, choose a color for each accent. Click Apply to see a preview of the effect. Once you are satisfied with the color scheme, click OK to save the color scheme. The new color scheme can be found in the Custom section of the Colors menu. You can always edit this color scheme by right-clicking the custom scheme and clicking Edit.
Organization charts or org charts are a great way to depict hierarchy in an organization. Visio provides ready-made templates to help you get started in creating org charts. In the following series of chapters, we will learn different aspects of creating and working with org charts. The easiest way to get started is to use an inbuilt org chart template and build upon it.
In Visio , the org chart template can be found by going to the New menu. Click the Home button, click New and select the Templates tab. In the Templates tab, go to the Business category and click Organization Chart.
It will open a dialog box in which you can choose the chart to be created in either Metric or US units. Select the units you are comfortable with and click Create to load the org chart shapes in a new diagram. Once the chart is created, you will notice that the Ribbon has a new Org Chart tab that lists the shape styles you can use. The Shapes pane has all the shapes necessary to use in a org chart.
The shapes change based on the shape style selected in the Org Chart tab in the Ribbon. In this example, the currently selected shape style is Belt. To insert a top-level shape, drag the Executive Belt shape over to the canvas and align it to the center of the page. Once the top-level executive shape is created, it is easy to create manager sub-shapes.
The Executive Belt shape will not offer SmartShapes as this is a hierarchical chart with defined positions. To insert a manager, simply drag the Manager Belt shape onto the Executive Belt shape. You will notice that Visio automatically connects both the shapes. You can add more Manager Belt shapes onto the Executive Belt shape and Visio will automatically connect, space, and align all the shapes.
You can then enter details into the shapes by zooming in and double-clicking the shape to activate the text box. Unlike the Executive Belt shape, the manager shapes will offer the choice of using SmartShapes. We can continue building on the org chart previously created.
Based on the organizational hierarchy, corresponding shapes can be added to the existing shapes. Visio will then automatically create the connection and align the new shape in the diagram. A position belt is used to indicate a position under an executive. In the following example, several position belts have been added to each of the three manager sub-shapes. To add a position shape, simply drag the Position Belt shape from the Shapes pane over any of the manager sub-shape.
Visio automatically creates the Position Belt shape and connects it to the manager shape above. In an organization, not all positions will be always full.
There will be a few vacant positions that need to be filled. You can indicate a vacancy by dragging the Vacancy Belt shape onto any of the managerial shapes. A vacancy shape is different from the other shapes and can be easily identified. Similarly, you can also add the consultant and assistant shapes to the org chart. Visio will automatically adjust the spacing and connections between the shapes.
It may be necessary to re-order team members in the org chart. Since this is an org chart, there will be an Org Chart tab in the Ribbon. Click the tab and in the Arrange section, click either of the arrows in the Move command. Depending on the position of the shape in the drawing, moving left and right can also mean moving up and down.
When you move a shape, all sub-shapes also move along with it. In the following example, the COO shape was moved to the right and with it, all positions below it also move. A team frame helps to denote members of different teams who work on a common project. To add a team frame, drag the team frame shape from the Shapes pane onto the teams that you want to include.
The team frame can be adjusted along its handles to accommodate as many members as needed. The team frame border line and the label can be formatted as needed. To format the team frame border, click the team frame and go to the Home tab and in the Shape Styles section, select the shape formatting needed.
A dotted line report helps in identifying individual team members who report to multiple people. To add a dotted line, drag the Dotted-line Report shape from the Shapes pane onto the canvas. You will see that there are two endpoints to the dotted line. Drag one of the endpoints to the first shape and the other endpoint to another shape to create a dotted line that indicates the team member reports to more than one position.
Although you can create individual shapes by dragging the desired shapes from the Shapes pane, Visio facilitates creating multiple shapes at one go. All shapes added together will be automatically connected and aligned. To create a three-position SmartShape, drag the Three Positions shape onto any of the higher manager shapes.
In the database container or navigation pane in Access and later versions, the system automatically categorizes each object by type e. Many Access developers use the Leszynski naming convention , though this is not universal; it is a programming convention, not a DBMS-enforced rule.
Developers deploy Microsoft Access most often for individual and workgroup projects the Access 97 speed characterization was done for 32 users. Databases under 1 GB in size which can now fit entirely in RAM and simultaneous users are well within the capabilities of Microsoft Access.
Disk-intensive work such as complex searching and querying take the most time. As data from a Microsoft Access database can be cached in RAM, processing speed may substantially improve when there is only a single user or if the data is not changing. In the past, the effect of packet latency on the record-locking system caused Access databases to run slowly on a virtual private network VPN or a wide area network WAN against a Jet database. As of , [update] broadband connections have mitigated this issue.
Performance can also be enhanced if a continuous connection is maintained to the back-end database throughout the session rather than opening and closing it for each table access. In July , Microsoft acknowledged an intermittent query performance problem with all versions of Access and Windows 7 and Windows Server R2 due to the nature of resource management being vastly different in newer operating systems.
In earlier versions of Microsoft Access, the ability to distribute applications required the purchase of the Developer Toolkit; in Access , and Access the “Runtime Only” version is offered as a free download,  making the distribution of royalty-free applications possible on Windows XP, Vista, 7 and Windows 8.
Microsoft Access applications can adopt a split-database architecture. The single database can be divided into a separate “back-end” file that contains the data tables shared on a file server and a “front-end” containing the application’s objects such as queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules. The “front-end” Access application is distributed to each user’s desktop and linked to the shared database.
Using this approach, each user has a copy of Microsoft Access or the runtime version installed on their machine along with their application database. This reduces network traffic since the application is not retrieved for each use. The “front-end” database can still contain local tables for storing a user’s settings or temporary data.
This split-database design also allows development of the application independent of the data. One disadvantage is that users may make various changes to their own local copy of the application and this makes it hard to manage version control. When a new version is ready, the front-end database is replaced without impacting the data database.
Microsoft Access has two built-in utilities, Database Splitter  and Linked Table Manager, to facilitate this architecture. Linked tables in Access use absolute paths rather than relative paths, so the development environment either has to have the same path as the production environment or a “dynamic-linker” routine can be written in VBA. For very large Access databases, this may have performance issues and a SQL backend should be considered in these circumstances.
To scale Access applications to enterprise or web solutions, one possible technique involves migrating to Microsoft SQL Server or equivalent server database. A client—server design significantly reduces maintenance and increases security, availability, stability, and transaction logging. This feature was removed from Access A variety of upgrading options are available.
The corresponding SQL Server data type is binary, with only two states, permissible values, zero and 1. Regardless, SQL Server is still the easiest migration. Retrieving data from linked tables is optimized to just the records needed, but this scenario may operate less efficiently than what would otherwise be optimal for SQL Server. For example, in instances where multi-table joins still require copying the whole table across the network. The views and stored procedures can significantly reduce the network traffic for multi-table joins.
Finally, some Access databases are completely replaced by another technology such as ASP. NET or Java once the data is converted. Further, Access application procedures, whether VBA and macros, are written at a relatively higher level versus the currently available alternatives that are both robust and comprehensive.
Note that the Access macro language, allowing an even higher level of abstraction than VBA, was significantly enhanced in Access and again in Access In many cases, developers build direct web-to-data interfaces using ASP. NET, while keeping major business automation processes, administrative and reporting functions that don’t need to be distributed to everyone in Access for information workers to maintain.
Microsoft Access applications can be made secure by various methods, the most basic being password access control; this is a relatively weak form of protection. A higher level of protection is the use of workgroup security requiring a user name and password. Users and groups can be specified along with their rights at the object type or individual object level. This can be used to specify people with read-only or data entry rights but may be challenging to specify.
A separate workgroup security file contains the settings which can be used to manage multiple databases. Databases can also be encrypted. MDE file. Some tools are available for unlocking and ” decompiling “, although certain elements including original VBA comments and formatting are normally irretrievable. Microsoft Access saves information under the following file formats :. There are no Access versions between 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Database manager part of the Microsoft Office package. Microsoft Office Access running on Windows Office Beta Channel See also: Web form. Main article: Upsizing database. The Verge. Retrieved October 5, PC Mag. Ziff Davis, Inc. Retrieved May 23, Retrieved October 15, Retrieved March 13, Retrieved January 2, November 14, September 4, July 31, October 16, November 20, November 4, July 13, July 20, The Old New Thing.
April 13, Retrieved May 20, Retrieved June 13, July 22, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved September 4, Office Blogs. September 7, Retrieved August 20, Retrieved January 17, Retrieved June 15, From access to SQL server. Apress Series. ISBN Retrieved July 8, SQL pass-through queries are queries in which you can enter a statement that is passed directly to the ODBC driver without the Jet engine validating it or parsing it in any way.
Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved September 22, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved October 20, Retrieved October 23, Retrieved July 20, Office 97 Resource Kit. Retrieved May 2, Microsoft Office website. Archived from the original on February 2, Archived from the original on March 4, Archived from the original on June 15, Microsoft TechNet.
April 28, February 19, December 16, Retrieved August 15, Wikimedia Commons has media related to Microsoft Access. Microsoft Office. History Microsoft Discontinued shared tools Accounting Docs. Authority control: National libraries Czech Republic.
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Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and librariesmany of which are provided by the GNU Project.
Popular Linux distributions    include DebianFedora Linuxand Ubuntuwhich in itself has many different distributions and modifications, including Lubuntu and Xubuntu.
Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, or include a solution stack such as LAMP. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since microsovt ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux also runs on embedded systemsi. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source software collaboration. The source code may be used, modified and distributed commercially or non-commercially by anyone under the terms of its ofricial licenses, such as the GNU General Public Acsdemic GPL.
The Linux kernel, for example, is licensed under the GPLv2, with a special exception for system callsas scademic the system call exception any program calling on the kernel would be considered a derivative and poserpoint the GPL would have to apply to that program.
The availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. As a result, Unix grew quickly and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses. Onyx Systems began selling early dree Unix workstations in Later, Sun Microsystemsfounded as a spin-off of a student microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free at Stanford Universityalso began selling Unix-based desktop workstations in While Sun workstations didn’t utilize commodity PC hardware like Linux was later developed for, it represented the first successful commercial attempt at fre a primarily single-user microcomputer that ran a Unix operating system.
With Unix increasingly “locked in” as a proprietary product, the GNU Projectstarted in by Richard Адресmicrosoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free the goal powerpoitn creating a “complete Unix-compatible software system” composed entirely of free software.
Work began microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free By the early s, many of the programs required in an operating system such as libraries, compilerstext editorsa command-line shelland a windowing system were completed, although low-level elements plwerpoint as device driversdaemonsand the kernelcalled GNU Hurdwere stalled and offkcial.
Tanenbauma computer science professor, and released in as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was freely available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until ppowerpoint licensing changed in April Linus Torvalds has stated on separate occasions that if the GNU kernel or BSD had been available at the timehe probably would not have created Linux.
While attending the University of Helsinki in the fall ofTorvalds enrolled in mifrosoft Unix course. It was with this course that Torvalds first became exposed to Unix. Inhe became curious about operating systems. Later, Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention ” Freax “, a portmanteau of “free”, “freak”, pvf “x” as an allusion to Unix.
During the start of his work on the system, some of the project’s makefiles included the name “Freax” for about half tekla structures 2017 free year. Initially, Torvalds considered the name “Linux” but dismissed it as too egotistical.
To facilitate development, the files were uploaded to the FTP server ftp. Ari Lemmke, Torvalds’ coworker at the Helsinki University of Technology HUT who was one acqdemic the volunteer administrators for the FTP server at the time, did not think that “Freax” was a good name, so he named the project offciial on the server without consulting Torvalds.
Adoption of Linux in production environments, rather than being used only by hobbyists, started to take off first in the mids in the supercomputing community, where organizations such as NASA started to replace their increasingly expensive machines with clusters of microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free commodity computers running Linux.
Commercial micgosoft began when Microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free and IBM coursr, followed by Hewlett-Packardstarted offering Linux support to escape Microsoft ‘s monopoly in the desktop operating system market.
Today, Powerloint systems are used throughout microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free, from embedded systems to virtually all supercomputers  and have secured a place in server installations ссылка as the micrlsoft LAMP application stack. Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing. Linux’s greatest success in the consumer market is perhaps the mobile device market, with Android being the dominant operating system on smartphones and very popular on tablets and, http://replace.me/22250.txt recently, on wearables.
Linux gaming is also on the rise with Valve showing its support for Linux and rolling out SteamOSits own gaming-oriented Linux distribution. Linux distributions have also gained popularity with various local and national governments, powerpint as the federal government of Brazil. Greg Kroah-Hartman is the lead pdt for the Linux kernel and guides its development.
These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux vendors нажмите для деталей communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions.
Many open source developers agree that the Linux kernel was not designed but rather evolved through natural selection. Torvalds considers that although the design of Unix served as a scaffolding, “Linux grew with a lot of mutations — and because the mutations were less than random, they were faster and more directed than alpha-particles in DNA.
Raymond considers Linux’s revolutionary aspects to be social, not technical: before Linux, complex software was designed carefully by small groups, but “Linux evolved in a completely different way. From nearly the beginning, it was rather casually hacked on by huge numbers of volunteers coordinating only through the Internet.
Quality was maintained not by rigid standards or autocracy but by the naively simple strategy of releasing every week and getting feedback from hundreds of users within microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free, creating a sort of rapid Darwinian selection on the mutations introduced by developers.
Such a system uses a monolithic kernelthe Linux kernelwhich handles process control, networking, access to frew peripheralsand file systems.
Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel, or added as modules that are loaded while the system is running. The GNU userland is a key part powerpoitn most systems based on the Linux kernel, with Android being the notable exception. The Project’s implementation of the C library works as a wrapper for the system calls of the Linux kernel necessary to the kernel-userspace interface, the toolchain is a broad collection of programming продолжение здесь vital to Linux development including the compilers used to build the Linux kernel itselftree the acadeemic implement many basic Unix kfficial.
The project also develops Basha popular CLI shell. Many other open-source software projects contribute to Linux systems. Acadsmic components of a Linux system include the following:  . The user interfacealso psf as the shellis either a command-line interface CLIa graphical user interface GUIor controls attached to the associated hardware, which acaddemic common for embedded systems.
For desktop systems, the default mixrosoft interface is usually graphical, although the CLI is commonly available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console. CLI shells are text-based user interfaces, which use text for both input and output. Most low-level Linux components, including various parts of the userlanduse the CLI exclusively.
The CLI is gree suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks and provides very simple inter-process communication. Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window Systemoften simply called “X”. It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application; however, certain extensions of the X Window System are not capable of working over the network. Org Serverbeing the most popular.
Server distributions might provide a command-line interface for developers and administrators, but provide a custom interface towards end-users, designed for the use-case of the system.
This custom interface is accessed through a client that resides on another system, not necessarily Linux based. Several types of window managers exist for X11, including tilingofifcialstacking and compositing. Window managers provide means to control the placement and appearance of individual application microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free, and interact with the X Window System.
Simpler X window managers such as dwmratpoisoni3wmor herbstluftwm provide a minimalist functionality, while more elaborate по этому сообщению managers such as FVWMEnlightenment or Window Maker provide more features such as a built-in taskbar and themesbut are still lightweight when compared to desktop environments. Wayland is a display server protocol intended as a replacement for the X11 protocol; as of [update]it has not received wider adoption.
Unlike X11, Wayland microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free not need microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free external window manager and compositing manager.
Therefore, a Wayland compositor takes academjc role of pdff display server, window manager and compositing manager. Enlightenment has already been microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free ported since version Due to the complexity and diversity of different devices, and due to the large number of ftee and standards handled by those APIs, this infrastructure needs to evolve to better fit other devices. Also, a good userspace device library is the key of the success for having userspace applications to be able to work with all formats supported by those devices.
The primary difference between Lowerpoint and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open-source software. Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is by far the most читать used. Linux-based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards.
Free software projects, although developed through collaborationare often produced independently of each other. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, however, provides a basis for larger-scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution.
Many Linux distributions manage a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection.
This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs. Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free, volunteer microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free, and commercial entities.
A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole. Distributions typically use a package manager such as aptyumzypper jicrosoft, pacman or portage to install, remove, and update all of a system’s software from one central location. A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities.
Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a powerplint basis, Debian being a well-known example. In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux User Groups LUGs seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software.
They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers. Online forums are another means for support, with notable examples being LinuxQuestions. Linux distributions host mailing lists ; commonly there will be coirse specific topic such as usage imcrosoft development for a given list.
There приведенная ссылка several technology websites with a Linux focus. Print magazines on Linux often bundle cover disks that carry software or even complete Linux distributions. Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell, support, and contribute to the development microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free the components of the system and of free software.
The free software licenseson which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the ,icrosoft between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic.
One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business users. A number of companies frfe offer a specialized microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks.
Another business model is to give away the software microsooft sell hardware. As computer hardware standardized throughout the s, it became more difficult for hardware microsoft official academic course powerpoint 2013 pdf free to profit from this tactic, as the OS would run on any manufacturer’s computer that shared the same architecture. Most programming languages support Linux either directly or through third-party community based ports.
First released inthe LLVM project provides an alternative cross-platform open-source compiler for many languages. A common feature of Unix-like systems, Linux includes traditional specific-purpose programming languages targeted at scriptingtext processing axademic system configuration and management in general. Linux distributions support shell scriptsawksed and make.
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Comments can also appear inline in the document or as balloons. ScreenTips appear when comments are inline and you place the mouse pointer over the inline comment. Microsoft Word can be used to create documents, brochures, More information. A base calendar can be used as a task calendar, a project calendar, or resource calendar and specifies default working and nonworking times. Before you begin. Microsoft Project calculates work using a work formula: Work 5 Duration 3 Units.
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